The Indigenous World
This year-long community celebration Indigenous Peoples around the world is an exciting series of programs, lectures and events conducted in collaboration between local higher education institutions and community organizations.
Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who are considered to fall under one of the internationally recognized definitions of Indigenous peoples, such as United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, i.e. "those ethnic groups that were indigenous to a territory prior to being incorporated into a national state, and who are politically and culturally separate from the majority ethnic identity of the state that they are a part of".
Note that this is a listing of peoples, groups and communities. Many of the names are externally imposed, and are not those the people identify within their cultures. As John Trudell observed, "They change our name and treat us the same." Basic to the unethical treatment of indigenous peoples is an insistence that the original inhabitants of the land are not permitted to name themselves. Many tribal groups have reasserted their traditional self-identifying names in recent times, in a process of geographical renaming where "The place-name changes herald a new era, in which Aboriginal people have increasing control over the right to name and govern their homelands."
This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).
Indigenous peoples constitute a least 370 million individuals representing more than 5000 distinct peoples around the world. Their problems are in many ways similar, in others, dependent on the nation state within which they live.
Indigenous Peoples in The United States
According to the United States Census Bureau, approximately 4.9 million people in the U.S., or 1.6%, identified as Native American in combination with another ethnic identity in 2008. There are currently around 335 federally recognized tribes in the United States (minus Alaska), most of which have reservations as national homelands. More than half of American Indians live off-reservation, many in large cities.
American Indian nations are theoretically sovereign but limited by individual treaties and federal Indian law, which is in flux and often dependent on individual U.S. Supreme Court decisions. The government has treaty and trust obligations toward indigenous nations, stemming from historical land sales by Indian nations to the federal government and the assumption of a continuing guardianship over them. Separate federal agencies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Health Service, are responsible for the federal government’s responsibilities to Indian tribes.
On December 16th, 2010, the United States, which had voted against its adoption along with Canada, Australia and New Zealand, became the last country to reverse its position and express support to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
The term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus. He thought that he had reached the East Indies when he landed in America and therefore named the inhabitants Indians. European settlers to America brought with them diseases to which the Native Americans had no resistance. These diseases killed millions of Indians and resulted in a huge population decline.
Europeans brought many animals to the Americas which the indigenous people had never seen, including cattle, sheep, and pigs.Horses had been hunted to extinction by the early settlers of the Americas thousands of years before the Europeans arrived. The reintroduction of the horse by the Europeans had an incredible impact on the American Indians. They utilized the horse for travel, hunting, and warfare. Numerous conflicts occurred between the American Indians and European settlers before the American Revolutionary War , and after the Revolution between the Native Americans and the U.S. government. These conflicts have been named the American Indian Wars.
In 1890 the last major battle between Native American Indians and U.S. soldiers occurred. It was called the Battle of Wounded Knee and occurred near the Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. Approximately three hundred Sioux Indians were slaughtered.
More information can be found on the sites below
Community Sponsors include:
- Center for History
- Bethel College
- The South Bend Museum of Art
- Indiana University South Bend
- Saint Mary's College Office for Civil and Social Engagement
- Ivy Tech Community College
- WNIT: Michiana's Public Media Source
- Visit South Bend/Mishawaka
- City of South Bend
- Saint Mary's College Student Affairs Office
- White Ripple Gallery & Co.
- Pokagon Band of Potawatomi
Notre Dame Sponsors include:
- Debartolo Performing Arts Center
- The Snite Museum of Art
- First Year Studies
- Native American Alumni Board & Friends
- Alliance for Catholic Education
- Segura Arts Studio
- Department of Anthropology
- Office of Public Relations
- The Center for Civil and Human Rights
- Mulitcultural Student and Program Services
- Department of Romance Languages and Literatures
- Office of Admissions
- Department of Africana Studies
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For additional information please visit Community Relations.